Friday, January 11, 2019

What are the five basic elements of a paragraph?

What are the five basic elements of a paragraph?

What are the five basic elements of a paragraph?

What are the five basic elements of a paragraph?- and How to write a good composition or paragraph? This question comes to our mind because writing a good paragraph is an art. For a good composition writing, we have to follow some rules. Writing creative writing with rules is an art that improves our writing skills. There are giving here some example of good paragraph writing

Paragraph writing format

Expansion of idea is a true test of one’s hold on written expression and command over the language. Your expression must not be diffusive and roundabout. Be sure that expansion of idea is neither a treatise nor an essay. Unlike the essay, be concise and sparing in your expression on the one hand and on the other you have to concentrate your mind within the range of your idea attempted, as against the loose a pandemonium of mind. Further unlike an essay, the expansion of idea should be regular, digested and systematic place. To expand an idea into paragraph implies a sustained purpose and forbids digressions and irrelevant matter.

Good expansion depends on two factors, viz., the power of thinking and the ability to construct a paragraph. Thinking provides the matter as well as the manner in which an idea has to be expanded while the skill of constructing a paragraph will give a suitable form to the amplification. A good paragraph contains one single idea. properly developed: its sentences form one indivisible whole. Thus, unity and coherence are an essential feature of a paragraph and, therefore, of amplification as well. This is possible when nothing farfetched or irrelevant is introduced. Hence, one should practice the art of writing short and simple paragraphs on topics of various interests before efficiency in the expansion is acquired. The subject is treated under the following heads:
  • Good expansion depends on two factors, viz., the power of thinking and the ability to construct a paragraph. Thinking provides the matter as well as the manner in which an idea has to be expanded while the skill of constructing a paragraph will give a suitable form to the amplification. A good paragraph contains one single idea. properly developed: its sentences form one indivisible whole. Thus, unity and coherence are an essential feature of a paragraph and, therefore, of amplification as well. This is possible when nothing farfetched or irrelevant is introduced. Hence, one should practice the art of writing short and simple paragraphs on topics of various interests before efficiency in the expansion is acquiredThe subject is treated under the following heads:

  • I. What is a paragraph: A definition.
  • II. Essentials of a paragraph.
  • III. Some practical hints for writing a good paragraph.
  • IV. How to avoid the pitfalls.

I. What is a Paragraph?

A paragraph comprises a series of sentences grouped together and relating to one subject. It connects all the sentences with one another in various ways by unity of purpose. Usually, the main thought is stated in the opening sentence and then amplified in the paragraph's body.

2. Essentials of a Paragraph

Essentials of a Paragraph to be observed in constructing a paragraph is that of unity. Just as each sentence deals with one thought, each paragraph must deal with one topic or idea. Every sentence in the paragraph must be closely connected with the main topic of the paragraph. There should be no digression from this rule. In the words of Dr. Henderson, “At the end of the paragraph, the reader should have, in a minor degree, the feeling that he gets when he reads the last sentence in a book”. Order:
The second principle of paragraph construction is a logical sequence of thought or development of the subject in order. All ideas should be connected with the leading idea and arranged according to their importance. The two most important sentences in a paragraph are the first and the last. The first, which should be the topical sentence, should arouse the interest of the readers and the last should satisfy it. The first sentence states the topic a fact, statements, or a proposition; the last brings the whole paragraph, on the given topic, to a conclusion. Variety:
The third principle of paragraph writing is variety. It should not read like a monotonous monologue. It should not be repetitive.

rules of paragraph writing

Clarity: A judicious choice and correct placement of the words is very important for clarity and shows the writer’s mastery of the language.
Style: Your written word reveals you. The style is the man”, said the celebrated prose writer Walter Pater. It is important to be to the point, concise and pithy while writing a paragraph. A good paragraph should keep the interest of the reader alive till the last word. I should write it in a simple but effective language.
Some Practical Hints for Writing a Good Paragraph Read the question carefully. Read again and again till you have grasped fully the meaning of the proposition and what the examiner expects of you.
Select the subject which you, fully understand. Do not be hasty in your selection.
Carefully reason out the idea and expand it. Let all the sentences in the paragraph revolve around this key idea or main theme.
Apply the rules given above under the heading
Further Note
The examiner may require you to:
Expand: This means a simple expansion of the keynote, the theme or proverb without offering any comments for or against.
Discuss: This means to evaluate or debate. Give reasons first in support of the given subject and then against it. But you are to not give judgment for or against either set of reasons advanced by you.
Comment or Critically Examine: Here the examiner expects you to assess and judge and to give you reasons for and against the statement and then to give a final judgment supporting or rebutting the key idea.
Refute or Oppose: This means that the examiner wants you to advance your reasons against the given topic or statement. You are not to advance arguments in favor of it. You are just expected to write a paragraph opposing the keynote of the topic.
Agree with the statement-Agree with the statement (for or against): Here the examiner wants you to agree or disagree with the given statement. You are to take a position. You are to give reasons only for the position you have taken up.

. How to Avoid the Pitfalls?

Avoid a vague or ambiguous approach to the topic. Do not illustrate the topic with a story in its support or refutation.
Avoid irrelevant details and supernode words. Avoid lengthy and compound sentences. 1?)! to keep to a simple style.
Avoid repetition.
Avoid transgression the limit of words prescribed. Avoid any discussion of the topic unless specifically asked to do :0.
Avoid attempting an expansion of any statement which you do not fully understand. Unless you are absolutely certain of the real meaning of a proverb or a saying. avoid attempting it.

Example of some good paragraph writing

1. Paragraph writing exercise ofThe value of educational tours of students life Educational tours are of great value in modern education. They bring the pupil in real contact with the world about which they study in the classroom. Firsthand contact with life has everlasting impressions on the mind. Educational tours to museums, planetariums, places of historical interest widen the horizon of the students. They should form an essential part of any educational curriculum. Besides, they provide an opportunity for students to mix up with other students, learn while they have fun and most important of all reduce the distance between the teacher and the taught. Learning takes place in a friendly and informal atmosphere. Such tours break the monotony and help to maintain the students’ interest in learning. They even promote team spirit, co-operation, and tolerance among students. They enrich the lives of the pupils and provide them with a wealth of experience to draw upon later in life. Most certainly educational tours should be given as much importance as classroom teaching. 2. Paragraph writing exercise To err is human nature but; to forgive, divine Man is by nature fallible and continues to make mistakes throughout his life. Adam and Eve, the ancestors of mankind, lost the paradise because they could not resist the temptation of eating the forbidden fruit. We won’t be human if we didn’t have our shortcomings. We all yield to pressure and temptation, sometime in our lives. Thus, to err is human and it is unjust to hold it against a person forever. We should be forgiving by nature. We should not nurse injuries, hold grudges and feelings of resentment for others. Forgiveness is a divine quality. He, who forgives and forgets is a large-hearted person. People do make mistakes. However, it does not mean they should be punished for it, forever. Nevertheless, forgiveness is a two-way process. If we expect others to be tolerant of our weakness then we too should develop the ability to accept the fact that, other human beings also deserve to be forgiven for their wrongs, faults, and shortcomings. 3. Paragraph writing exercise of Environment Environmental pollution is one of the major hazards that are threatening the ecological balance. The air that we inhale is polluted, the water we drink is contaminated and noise pollution has managed to take away the calmness and serenity from our otherwise hectic and tense lives. One of the main sources of pollution is the heavy and congested traffic which causes the concentration of smoke and harmful particles in the atmosphere, which is a permanent or chronic cause of various respiratory disorders. The incessant felling of trees, building of dams and the upcoming unplanned congested localities have disturbed the ecological balance to an alarmingly high level. To remedy this situation the urgent need of the hour is to plant as many trees wherever possible and to shift the factories and mills to places where their effect on pollution of the environment is minimized. To control traffic, carpools must be made so that the emission levels from vehicular. traffic can be reduced .to. the desired levels.

Monday, December 31, 2018

india minority religious essay in english

india minority religious essay in English

india minority religious essay in english
india minority religious essay in english

  India minority religious essay in English- People of all religions reside in India. There are many ethnic minorities, such as Muslims, Jews, Buddhists, and other ethnic minorities. All minorities and majority castes have equal right in the constitution here. Minority
Absence or inadequacy of social fusion in a country tends to create the problem of the minority. Religious, racial, regional, linguistic, ethnic group-feeling marked by narrow-mindedness or fanaticism adversely affect the healthy working and the healthy life of a nation. Corporate interests are ignored and conflicting interests which are more artificial than natural are created.
Just as for an individual it is not easy to be truly natural so for a community or a nation, balance and a natural adjustment of interests are not easily achieved. Integration is a plant of slow growth. Harmonious living in a pluralistic society at all event is achieved step by step and phase by phase.
In India, we have a multiplicity of races and nationalities, of regional habits and ways of life, of manners and customs, of languages, of diets and dresses and other divergences. The builders of India’s life during all periods of Indian history made invaluable contributions to the evolution of fundamental unity amidst bewildering and apparently insurmountable divisions and diversities.
Religions and religious differences became a tool in the hands of separatists and divisive forces. In the Gita, Lord Krishna tells Arjuna that the enlightened man sees similarities and unities where un-enlightened men see only dissimilarities and disunities. Ours is a country of contrasts, but even during the centuries known as the Muslim period, and even afterward, till today, Hindus and Muslims have given proof of a fraternal life -the like of which no other country and no other nation can show.
It is a miracle of Indian history. But this fusion, this integration, and this unity and fraternity was dangerously undermined and sabotaged by the foreign British government. The Hindus were made to feel that British rule favored the Muslims. The Muslims were made to feel that even with British favor the Hindus were running away with all the prizes.
Only men with searching minds endowed with dispassionate discernment could see that British rule had equally sapping an emasculating effect on the overwhelming majority both of Hindus and of Muslims. Constructive national work resulting in mass uplift and mass welfare was lost sight of, and a non-existent artificially created Hindu-Muslim problem took the place of constructive thinking and of mass welfare both of the Hindus and of the Muslims.
Hindus and Muslims fought for shadows and neglected the substance. For misguided people in both the communities shadows became substances. Cow-slaughter, the Hindi-Urdu question, percentages of communal representation in ineffective bodies, and in services, assumed inflated importance compared to such vital questions as the economic Uplift the educational uplift, the transfer of political power to the people, etc.
The introduction of separate electorates sowed e seeds of lasting discord between the Hindus and Muslims. Ramsay Macdonald, the Prime Minister of England, who called himself a socialist, further endeavored to disrupt India’s national unity by proposing separate electorates for the untouchables and other backward classes of Hindu society.
Evil became a self-generating force of chain-reaction with the introduction of separate electorates. Men with insight, whose ideal was a welfare state, found that communal representation being a meaningless and mischievous term was neither here nor there. It was neither fish nor flesh nor good red herring. It only meant turning India into a cockpit; it only meant the Balkanization of India.
Every agriculturist, every skilled and unskilled laborer, every middle-class Indian had to have an opportunity for remunerative work and adequate wages. Political and economic power structure had to be changed to enable every Indian to come into his own. The supreme task of India nation-building needed creating a condition not of sectional but of universal welfare.
When every Hindu and every Muslim family was to be adequately provided for, the Hindu-Muslim problem or the majority-minority problem would automatically cease to exist. It is only when a few are favored and the many of teeming millions are left to their own fate that the problem of minorities can crop up.
Social, economic and political thinking was substituted and selected by the middle and upper classes of both Hindus and Muslims. Universal welfare and the uniform growth and development of the entire Indian society simply did not matter to the vast majority masses of other countries. It is only the class champions both among Hindus and Muslims who speak of religious majority and religious minority. The minority problem simply does not exist.
There are only the problems of want, hunger, economic misery, employment, and wages, not for a majority or a minority but of all, which are concrete, actual and real. For humanity’s sake let us have clear thinking and not deformed, befuddled thinking. There are no majorities and no minorities. There is only human and an undivided and indivisible

Sunday, December 30, 2018

Essay on Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions

Essay on Environmental Problems,  Causes, and Solutions

Essay on Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions
Water pollution
Write an essay on environmental problems, causes, and solutions - Pollution is the cause of every human problem. Environment pollution is due to the defects produced in natural equilibrium due to the penetration of pollutants in the environment. It means pollution which has adverse effects on human life. Types of environmental pollution - 'contaminated with unwanted substances such as air, water, soil', which directly affect the organism and other indirect effects harm the ecosystem.
This creates adverse effects on the biological world, called pollution. Human development process and modernity are an important contributor to environmental pollution. Even the normal activities of humans are called pollution, from which negative results are obtained. For example, nitrogen oxide pollutants produced by the industry. Although its elements are not pollutants. It is the energy of sunlight which transforms it into a mixture of smoke and fog.
1-Environmental balance- On this earth plants and animals live with a complex relationship. This is a relic that exists between them and their environment. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for humans, plants and animals. But only plants can produce them with atmospheric carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight. In this process, they release oxygen. Animals depend on plants or other animals for the supply of carbohydrate. Humans and animals use atmospheric oxygen to burn carbohydrates to meet the energy required for their activities. And, they leave carbon dioxide. Thus in our environment, there remains a microscopic balance between oxygen and carbon dioxide.
2-Environment Pollution-The faster and more comfortable means of transport-steam, diesel, and electric locomotives; petrol or diesel run cars, buses or trucks-all pollute the air. Remember, thermal power plants produce electricity. Chemical fertilizers pollute the earth and as a result our agricultural produce. Excessive use of pumps drawing underground water for irrigation has resulted in lowering the water table. As governments subsidize chemical fertilizers and give free power to pumps, they are being used to increase production.
Industrial development, of the chemical industry, pollutes not only air but also water in the rivers making their water undrinkable. As a result, there is a crisis of potable water.
3. How is Environment Polluted?-The faster and more comfortable means of transport-steam, diesel, and electric locomotives; petrol or diesel run cars, buses or trucks-pollute the air. Remember, electricity produces by thermal power plants. There are various types of pollutions depending upon surroundings  -air, water, soil, sound, etc. These are:
1 Air pollution: When polluters. smoke, dust, poisonous gases, etc. pollutes the atmospheric air I know it as air pollution.
2.  water pollution: When polluters industrial wastage, acid rain, chemicals etc. pollutes the river, pond, lakes, sea etc. then known as water pollution.
3. Soil pollution,- acid rain, chemical manure, industrial wastage etc. pollute the soil, land etc. we know as soil pollution.  
4. Sound pollution-loudspeaker, TV, transistors, the sound of airplanes and vehicles causes excess noise known as sound pollution.
5. Causes of Pollution: There are various causes which create pollution. These are as follows,
1.effects of air pollution- Smoke produced from different vehicles like-buses, cars, trucks, etc. and from the factories causes air pollution.
2 Due to the incomplete combustion of woods, Coals, a poisonous gas carbon mono ' oxide and carbon dioxide produces which also causes air pollution.
3. Due to the incomplete combustion of a fuel like -petrol, Diesel etc. in vehicles produces lead and smoke causes air pollution.
4. Wastage materials like slag coming out from factories mix in soil, river, sea, ponds, lakes etc. and causes water and soil pollution.
5. Chemical manure like -urea, phosphate etc. causes soil and water pollution.
6. Acid rain causes soil and water pollution. 7. Noise from loudspeakers, buses, cars, T. V, transistors, airplanes etc. causes sound pollution.
5.The solution of pollution: There are various measures to control pollution. These are as follows:

Short essay on environment pollution in 150 words

The Environmental Balance-On this earth plants and animals live with a complex relationship that exists between them and their environment Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for plants as well as animals including man. But only plants can manufacture them from atmospheric carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight. In the process they release oxygen. Animals depend on plants or other animals for their supply of carbohydrates. Animals use atmospheric oxygen to burn carbohydrates to produce the energy needed for their activities. And in the process, they release carbon dioxide. Thus a subtle balance is maintained between oxygen and carbon-di-oxide in our atmosphere. If it is disturbed, it can spell disaster.
Who Disturbs the Balance ?-Now, who has the ability to disturb this balance to pollute the environment? Not the plants. And not the animals barring human beings. Only man has the ability to manipulate things. And I only he has the ability to pollute the environment. Well if it is done in limits, there is not much harm. But as we know, comfort and greed have been the two main traits of man. And science has been assisting him in both. '
How is Environment Polluted ?-The faster and more comfortable means of transport-steam, diesel, and electric locomotives; petrol or diesel run cars, buses or trucks-all pollute the air. Remember, electricity is mostly produced by thermal power plants.
Chemical fertilizers pollute the earth and as a result all our agricultural produce. Excessive use of pumps drawing underground water for irrigation has resulted in lowering the water-table considerably. As governments subsidize chemical fertilizers and provide free power to pumps, they are being used indiscriminately in the hope of increasing production.
Industrial development-, particularly of the chemical industry, pollutes not only air but also water in the rivers making their water undrinkable. AS 8 result there is a crisis of potable water:
Moreover,- the current craze for refrigeration and air-conditioning in producing excessive CFC the gas that 13 destroying the ozone layer exposing us to harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun.

noun definition and examples and types

noun definition and examples and types
noun definition and examples and types

noun definition and examples and types in English

Noun definition and examples-Whatever the stuff in the world. They are all nouns, whether it is human, animal, birds, or non-living things, house, place, and abstract noun list air, anger, etc. Nouns list are the following here-
There are all types of nouns following down
1 Proper Noun
2 Common Noun
3 collective Noun
4 Material Noun
5 Abstract Noun

nouns to describe a person

nouns that can be used to describe a person, thing, place, idea, and quality of a  person, a thing, and a place. These are called Noun, like Roger Federer, Australian Open‬, ‪Will Ferrell‬, ‪Aljaž Bedene‬, ‪Novak Djokovic‬‬, these are names. FOX NEWS, CNN NEWS, AJTAK NEWS, these are names of news channels. United States, India, Australia, these are names of Countries, Tajmahal, white house, these are names of Place, Etc.
What is a name? what is a noun?
A noun is used as a person, name, thing, place, idea, and the name of a person's quality, one thing and a place. (Or)
Here, in simple words, all the things that we touch, see, and feel, and recognize them, they are all called bounty nouns.
Example of noun in a sentence
1- Ram is a Doctor. (Ram is a name of a person.)
2- He lives in a house.  (House means a place where we live safe and comfortable.)
3- Wind was blowing.  (wind: we can not see our open eyes. means only feels )
4-ICYMI at Australian Open: Great tennis from  Tennys in win vs. Wawrinka
(All blue colours words are Noun)

(1) kinds of noun definition and examples
Types of nouns
(a) Common Noun: It is the name given in common to every person or a thing
of the same kind. It is not a name of any particular person or thing or place,
   Generic nouns - The nouns which individuals say in the name of a certain caste are all called universal nouns.
For example boy, girl, teacher etc. '
(b) Proper Noun: It is the name given to you By our proper noun, our reputation is in the name of a person's place and place.
For example Delhi, (name of a city) Sania, (name of a girl) India, (a country name) Jupiter. (Name of a house)
(c) Collective Noun: It is a name of a collection of people A group of people who understand the noun (noun) is called Collective Noun.
For example:
fleet, audience, class, committee, crowd, mob etc.
Note:  Collective Noun is commonly used in singular. These are used only in Plural when differences are shown or if anything is said about each member.
(d) Abstract Noun: It is the name of a quality, idea, concept or state. Abstract Noun expresses such qualities, emotion, action and state that can not be touched, can not be seen, but can be realized.
For example beauty, youth, honesty, death etc.
Note Abstract Noun is commonly used in Singular.
(e) Material Noun: The noun which is the realization of such a substance, that other thing can become a substance called a particle For Example Such as gold, coal, Wheat, tea.
From the noun (noun), the sense of such substance is created, so that other things can be created.
Noun (substance noun) is called. Two types of Material Noun 1- Countable 2- Uncountable
Note: Material Noun is not countable, which means they can not be counted. They can be measured or weighed. Generally singular verb is used with them and Article is not used with them.
(ii) Number of a Noun, ‘ Singular: Plural ’
(III) Gender of a Noun ' Masculine Feminine Neuter
(IV) The case of a Noun
For example
(i) Mohan is my friend.          Subjective/Nominative case
(ii) Who brought this book?     Objective/Accusation? case
(iii) She is Mohan’s wife.          Possessive/Genetive Cd“
(iv) Help me, Mohan. '             VocatiW case
Case in Opposition.
Mohan, the Captain of our team, has been rewarded.
Opposition means a placing near just ‘as captain’ is placed after ‘Mohan’. It is a kind 0f descriptive expression not joined by any conjunction

Important Point of Noun

Rule 1-  Some Nouns are used only in Plural form. By removing the fitted at the end of these, they can not be made singular. These appear to be plural in appearance and they are also used like plural. Such nouns are the following.Scissors (scissors), tongs (pliers), piers (pimps), pincers (tweezers), bellows, trousers (trousers), pants (pants), pajamas (pajamas), shorts (half pants), gallows Abrasives (amputations), amends (revision), archives (accountant, historical documents), arrears (outstanding), fengs (sting) spectacles (glasses), goggles (sunglasses), binoculars (binoculars), eyeglasses (glasses) , outsources (outskirts), tidings (news, news), particulars (details), proceeds (advantages), auspices (conservatories), congratulations (congratulations), embers (ashes), fireworks (crackers, loudspeakers), lodgings (temporary housing) Income), regards (relation), riches (wealthy ), valuables (precious), wages (wages), belongings (residues), savings (savings), shambles (mess scam), surroundings, troops (troops), tactics (thanksgiving) (Property) etc.

Note: Wages can be used in singular and plural forms. See the following sentences - Wages have two meanings
1- Wages and 2- Result 1- Wages are used in plural forms.
Example: Wages are paid in cash .
2- The result is used in singular forms.
Example: Wages of hard work is sweet.
Rule 2-   Some Nouns seem to be plural in appearance, but in meaning there are singular. They are always used in Singular only.
Example: News, Innings, Politics, Summons, Physics, Economics, Ethics, Mathematics, Mumps, Measles, Rickets, Shingles, Billiards, Athletics etc. Example 1- No news is good news. 2- Economics is an interesting subject.
Rule 3-  Some Nouns seem to be singular in appearance, but they are always used in plural such as: cattle, cavalry, infantry, poultry, peasantry, children, gentry, police, people etc. These are all plural s or es with these Used: as: cattles Or childrens Writing will be wrong.
Example : (a ) Cattle are grazing in the field. (b ) Our infantry has marched forward.
Rule 4 -    Some Nouns are used only in singular forms. These are Uncountable Nouns. And with them the Indefinite Article A / An is not used.
Scenery, Poetry, Furniture, Advice, Information, Hair, Business, Mischief, Bread, Stationery, Crockery, Luggage, Baggage, Postage, Knowledge, Wastag Jewellery, Breakage, EquipmentFule, Cost.
Example -  1 - The scenery of Kashmir is very charming.
                  2 - I have no information about her residence.
                3 - His hair is black.
Note - 1 - The above nouns are not used in the (plural) form. Scenery, Poetry, Furniture, Advice, Information Plural is not made by placing s or es with these verbs.

2- If the aforementioned Noun is desirous in both singular or plural form, then sentence is created by adding some words to them.
See the examples given below
  • (a) He gave me a piece of information.
  • (b )) All pieces of information given by her Were reliable.
  • (c) Many kinds of furniture are available in that shop.
  • (d) I want a few articles of jewelry
  • (e) He ate two slices of bread.
  • (i) Please show me some items of office stationery.
  • (g) The Police have found a strand of hair in the car.
Money can be plural form 'Monies', which means 'sums of money'
Example - Monies have been collected and handed to the women' s welfare society
Rule 5 contains some nouns, plural and singular, both in the same form as:
deer, sheep, series, species, fish, crew, team, jury, aircraft, counsel etc.
  • (a) Our team is the best g
  • (b) Our team are trying their new uniform.
  • (c) There are two fish in the pond.
  • (d) There are many fishes in the aquarium.
Rule-6 Hyphenated nouns are never used in the plural form.
  1. He gave me two hundred-rupees notes.
  2. He stays in five-stars hotels.
For this, change the rupees to Rupees above words and convert stars into stars.
Rule  7 : some Nouns  कPeople use this in the language of speech, but in reality it is absolutely wrong to use them.
Example: wrong Use Correct Use
1-   Cousin brother  की जगह    Cousin or Cousin sister                -
2- Pickpocket  instead of    Pickpocketer
3- Replacing Good   Name
4- Big / small blunder    Place     Blunder (Blunder means is a mistake, therefore, wrong to use big.
5 -   Strong breeze  कThe place is always strong and gentle. 
6- Bad dream instead of nightmare

Rule: A Compound Nouns (Numerical + Noun) Some Nouns are Plural in that sense but if a certain numerical adjective is used before them, then these nouns are pluralized. Example - Pair, Score By making s, or es with the words above, Gross, Stone, Hundred, Dozen, Thousand, Million, Billion, etc, they do not make a single escape or plural form. To make these multiply, the numerical index one, two, three etc. By placing it, they make plural or monogamous.

I have two pairs of shoes Sita purchased three dozen pencils.

 Ram has already donated five thousand rupees.

 But if these are used with Indefinite countable then they will be pluralized. Example - dozens of women, hundreds of people, millions of dollars, etc.